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๐Ÿ—ƒ Git With The Flow

๐Ÿ—ƒ Git With The Flow

Why Git? And why not Google Drive? ๐Ÿ˜‚

I originally wrote this for the ICS Student Council at UC Irvine, particularly for their Project Committee. There are lots of skilled, hardworking students there, and I was happy to be a part of it! Do watch out for references to the ICSSC -- if some terminology doesn't make sense, it's because it's referring to something internal.

Hope this can help any of you new developers out there as well.

๐Ÿค” Why git?

And why not google drive? ๐Ÿคจ๐Ÿ‘Ž

A reason why Google Docs has become so popular because it made an easy way for a team to collaborate on a document together. A powerful tool Google Docs provides is revision history which gives document owners a way to view and manage past versions of the document. This can be called version control.

Git is the leading form of version control for source code. It is built around the importance of tracking changes and managing collaboration. In this essay, I hope to convince you that this is the right tool for programming small and large projects.

๐Ÿ˜„ Getting Started with Git

  1. Download Git
  2. Clone the remote repository you are working on

     git clone <url to the repository>
    

    Example for PeterPortal Public API:

     git clone https://github.com/icssc-projects/peterportal-public-api
    

    Note: This assumes that you are working on a remote repository, since that is the case for most of you in the Projects Committee.

  3. Navigate into the repository you just clones

     cd peterportal-public-api
    

Boom. You are good to proceed.

๐Ÿ“š Sources & things: Git Origin Story Why everyone uses Git What is Git - Explain it like I'm Five Basics of Git


๐ŸŒฟ Branches

Whether you're joining in on an ICSSC Project or starting a personal website, you'll be working on some sort of feature. Branches exist to manage different features and ideas in progress; thus, the first thing you should do is figure out your branches.

image.png

All projects within the ICSSC Project Committee Github have a branch called master or main โ€” for simplicity, we'll be using the name main. Anything within main should be deployable.

โœ… Features within main should be well tested and documented.

๐Ÿ™…โ€โ™€๏ธ Rarely should you be committing directly to main.

So where do you commit your assigned task, new idea, or bug fixes?

โœจ Feature Branch

Your work should be committed to a branch specific to what you are working on, whether it's a new feature or bug fix. This prevents conflicts with your teammates, and your project manager will be able to understand, manage, and test your changes before it merges back into main.

image.png

๐Ÿ˜„ Getting started with Branches

  1. Within your cloned repository, create your feature branch

     git checkout -b example-feature
    

    This will create a new branch and switch to it, so you can go ahead and start making commits!

  2. Publish your branch to origin (the remote repository on Github)

     git push --set-upstream origin example-feature
    

    While your branch exists locally, it needs to be published on the remote repository.

lit. Now that you've made your feature branch, you can start making your commits.

๐Ÿ”€ Switching to remote branches

This is a lil advanced (you can skip this) but switching to remote branches is a common task when working on a large project with many branches. On large projects, you may see a secondary branch, typically called develop, where branches are created and merged into. This leaves main reserved for organized releases. In this kind of workflow, you will often need to switch to remote branches (usually develop).

image.png

When you git clone a remote repository, your local clone is automatically on the main branch. However, other branches on the remote repository, such as develop, do not exist in your local clone. So, how do you switch to them?

  1. Fetch the remote origin. This ensures you are up to date with the remote branches.

     git fetch origin
    
  2. (Not necessary) Curious about the names of the remote branches? Display them:

     git branch -v -a
    
  3. Switch to the remote branch

     git checkout -b develop origin/develop
    

    origin/develop refers to the remote branch named develop on the remote (whose default name is origin)

     git checkout -b my-develop origin/develop
    

These steps are a lil more extra (checkout the easier way here); however, this ensures you are switching to the branch that you intend to switch to. When working with multiple remotes and lots of branches, this is my personal preference that I've learned from my mistakes.

๐Ÿ“š Sources & things: Github's Github Flow Tutorial Bitbucket's Gitflow Workflow Tutorial How to create a branch How to checkout a remote branch


๐Ÿ”จ Commits

Every time you add, edit, or delete the file, you'll be adding it to your branch via a commit. Each commit is followed by a comment, explaining what you've done and why.

So, how should you commit?

image.png

๐Ÿงผ Make Clean, Single Purpose Commits

Commits should be seen as a single unit of change. If you're committing an authentication feature along with a CSS bug for the home page, that's too much in one commit. So, what exactly is this "single unit of change"?

๐Ÿ“ While there's no metric to measure this, you can think of a single unit of change as new or changed behavior that has been tested. If you're working on a large task, you should be splitting it up into smaller tasks and committing those as you complete and test them. Here's just a snippet of my process of implementing a GraphQL Endpoint to PeterPortal Public API:

image.png

Another way to know if you should commit is that you should be able to write a sensible, helpful commit message within 50 characters. What was the motivation for the change? How does this change compare to the previous implementation? Your commit message should answer at least one of these questions.

โŒš Commit Often

This is one of the things I tend to slack on, and it touches on the previous point of single-purpose commits. You may find yourself wanting to wait until your new feature is perfect and complete before you commit. I suggest you don't do that.

Why? One of the purposes of Git, or more generally Version Control, is to track changes. If you have made a discernable change, you should commit it. Should a bug arise and you have to revert back to a previous commit, it will be hurtful to have to throw away potentially helpful code because you did not commit often. However, don't go crazy on committing every second; learn from my mistakes:

image.png

TL;DR: Your teammates can only control-z from each commit you make. Commit reasonably often.

Aside: Committing often vs committing completed (or well-tested) work? This can be a point of contention and don't take my word as an authoritative voice. Talk with your project head to see what workflow suits your project. My perspective is that, if you've broken your task down correctly, there should be some semblance of testing before you commit. But again, you shouldn't aim for a perfect deployable system in every commit โ€” that kind of testing is out of the scope of the commit โ€” so there's a balance.

โš  What not to commit

Do not commit:

  • IDE / Cache files
  • Virtual Environments
  • 3rd party installable packages. Ex: Node modules

  • Generated files (like your database). Github is not FTP or Google Drive ๐Ÿ˜ฌ

  • Sensitive information ๐Ÿ”’. Ex: API keys, login information. Try using environmental variables instead.

๐Ÿ˜„ Getting started with Commits

  1. So let's say you've made a changes to a file (or even added this new file), changed_file.txt for the project. You need to add it to git . This is called staging your changes.

     git add new_file.txt
    

    Let's say you've made many changes and added a bunch of files in a bunch of places. You can stage all changes with this command:

     git add --all
    
  2. Now you need to commit these changes. Be sure to write your comment in the quotes!

     git commit -m "I made these changes to these files for this reason."
    
  3. Now you need to push these changes to the repository.

     git push
    

    If you haven't configured your Github username and login on git, it will ask you now. Be prepared with your credentials.

  4. Let's say that a team mate recently pushed changes for a bug fix on your branch. To update your local branch, pull:

     git pull
    

That's the basics of Committing! After doing your work, you're going to make a Pull Request to get your changes on the example-feature branch to the main branch.

๐Ÿ“š Sources & things: Github's Github Flow Tutorial DeepSource's Best Practices for using Git Git Commit Best Practices (Medium blog)


๐Ÿ™‹๐Ÿพโ€โ™‚๏ธ Pull Request

Everything from here is not about git on Command-Line. We are now working with Github.

Pull Requests initiate a discussion about your commits. Therefore, your Pull Request should include the purpose of the request, an overview of the work, and the specific feedback you want.

โฐ When do I make a Pull Request?

You can open a Pull Request at any point during the development process: when you have little or no code but want to share some screenshots or general ideas, when you're stuck and need help or advice, or when you're ready for someone to review your work.

Aside: Using Pull Requests to update your feature branch By making a pull request from the main branch to your feature branch, you can bring in updates, such as bug fixes, to the feature branch that you are working on

โœ๐Ÿฝ What do I put in a Pull Request?

To reiterate, the basics are: purpose of the request, an overview of the work, and the specific feedback you want. Here are other things to include, though it may depend on what you are doing.

Features:

  • Include documentation or a link to documentation about your new features
  • If you can, include a GIF to demo the new functionality. (Want your own GIF website?)
  • Request a review from your project head

๐ŸŒ’ What happens after I make a Pull Request?

After you make your Pull Request, it will be reviewed by whoever your team lead is.

Look out for discussion comments posts on your Pull Request!

After the review is approved, your team lead will merge your branch into main, and that's it!

๐Ÿ˜„ Getting Started with Pull Requests

Making a pull request is as easy as a couple of clicks. Go to your remote repository, switch to your example-feature branch, click on "Pull Request", then select "New Pull Request". Checkout the GIF below:

image

๐Ÿ“š Sources & things: Github's Github Flow Tutorial The Perfect Pull Request (Github blog)


๐ŸŽ‰ That's it!

For more help, checkout Sources & things for each section.

This guide is made from personal experience and outside sources โ€” it is not the perfect truth. Ask questions to your teammates and team lead if you're confused about their Git Flow.

#github#git
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